Research & science

Numerous scientific reports conclude that nearly 70% of muscular and skeletal disorders in knees, hips, pelvic and spine occur due to improper movement of the foot. In a review article which contains 27 articles and three books (George JW. Foot overpronation. A review of the literature. Manchester, MO: Logan College of Chiropractic, 2003), it is estimated that 60-70% of the European population has a degree of pronation on one or both feet. In other words, they add too much pressure towards the inside of the foot.

GaitLine™ customers have clear ambitions of enhancing their everyday performance. With a strong science and research team we do our best to support these ambitions. We are in a continuous process enhancing our product, testing and documenting the technology of the GaitLine™ footwear with academic research and customer feedback. Four reports document the effects of the SGL™ sole construction.

About the research

Academic research over the past 10 years reveals the complex biomechanical interaction of the anatomical structures in the human body. The tight, structural linkage from the foot to the scalp makes it comprehensible that proper foot function is extremely important for human wellbeing and everyday performance. Lots of people experience pain in their muscle and skeleton system, a pain that might have started as a minor dysfunction in the foot, without anyone knowing. It is an intimate interaction between the environment in which we are walking, the shoes we wear and our quality of life. That is why we are aiming at making the world´s best walking shoe.

Four reports support our research:

Testing the sole

The Advicia report

Advicia, a Norwegian research company, conducted a survey among 175 GaitLine™ customers wearing GaitLine™ shoes frequently from 3 months up to 1,5 year.

Results:

  • An overall satisfaction rate of 5,3 on a scale of 1 to 6.
  • 80% of GaitLine™ customers report they buy GaitLine™ to improve their everyday performance, focusing on injury prevention or minimizing a certain muscle and skeleton disorder.
  • 85% of the GaitLine™ customers suffering from foot pain, knee pain or lower back pain have experienced a significant pain-reduction after the use of GaitLine™ shoes.

The Swedish University of Agriculture and Science report

To understand the underlying factors of the Advicia survey, an important investigation was carried out in the motion laboratory at the Swedish University of Agriculture and Science (SLU). The set up for the gait testing, was run by a PhD student and supervised by Professor Lars Roepstorff. Mission: to quantify foot pronation (foot-inward rotation), lower limb kinematics and postural symmetry during gait, using Qualizys Gait Scan System.
Settings: 18 young, female students (age 18-21) with pronounced overpronation. Data were collected during three different walking conditions:
A) barefoot, B) GaitLine™ shoes, C) casual shoes.

Results:

  • The GaitLine™ shoes are reducing inward rotation of the foot and ankle significantly, compared to barefoot walking and walking in casual shoes, particularly during the critical phases of heel impact and mid stance. No other casual shoes that were tested had a similar effect on gait-correction.
  • Significant changes in rotations of knee-joints, hips and pelvic.
  • The casual shoes had varying effects on foot and ankle-rotations. Approximately 1/3 of the casual shoes reinforced the overpronation-pattern, and had severe negative impact on gait and postural symmetry. Approximately 1/3 made no alterations of the pronation pattern, compared to barefoot walking, while 1/3 had significant correcting effect on overpronation for one foot/ankle, but not the other foot/ankle.
Testing the sole

Summary - The Swedish University of Agriculture and Science

The report from SLU highlighted the following benefits in favor of GaitLine™ shoes:

  • Reduced inward foot-rotation, normalizing pronation pattern
  • Feet more aligned, feet more parallel
  • Reduced inward rotation of ankle joint, lower legs and knee joint
  • Smoother foot-roll (ankle-pitch) shortly after heel-impact, which might reduce stress on lower leg muscles (especially m. tibialis anterior)
  • Less forward hip-rotation, anterior tilt, which has an impact on the spine curvature, especially lumbar lordosis
  • Less inward hip-rotation, lateral tilt, which also has an impact on the spine curvature

The University College of Applied Sciences report -1

The third study was conducted at the University College of Applied Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy in Oslo 2014. Mission: to investigate whether the use of GaitLine™ footwear would reduce pain for people suffering from chronic plantar fasciitis (paint underneath the foot) and heel spur. Background: Approximately 7% of the grown up population are suffering from plantar fasciitis, while the percentage of plantar fasciitis among athletes is 10-20% out of all types of sport injuries. Settings: 20 test persons diagnosed with chronic plantar fasciitis or chronic heel-spur were to use the GaitLine™ shoes for a minimum of three hours per day over a period of two weeks.

Results:

  • 80% of the test-persons experienced considerable pain reduction during two weeks wear-testing
  • Three test persons were relieved from pain during the test period

The University College of Applied Sciences report - 2

The fourth study was also conducted at the University College of Applied Sciences, Department of Physiotherapy in Oslo 2014. Mission: to compare EMG activation of tibialis anterior (TA) in two test-conditions a) barefoot walking and b) walking in Gaitline™ shoes, two categories of test-persons: people with normal gait pattern and people with an over-pronating gait pattern.

Background: Lots of people suffer from inflammatory disease and pain in the TA muscle due to over-activation during gait, people of all ages and both genders. TA is controlling the foot-roll (ankle pitch) shortly after heel-touch by eccentric activation. TA is an “anti-drop-foot” muscle. Shoes with a “high heel construction” have a tendency to increase the need for eccentric TA-activation. Additionally people suffering from an over-pronating gait-pattern are usually stressing the TA muscle too much, resulting in a painful TA muscle, often referred to as shin splint.

Test-results:

  • People suffering from an over-pronating pattern demonstrate reduced TA-activation shortly after heel-touch when wearing GaitLine™ shoes. People with normal gait pattern had equivalent TA-activation during barefoot testing and GaitLine™ testing
  • GaitLine™ testing demonstrate a dynamic “on and off”-TA-activation, from heel-touch to mid-stance, indicating a TA-activation as part of a balance strategy programming, due to a moderate instable shoe construction. Dynamic action stimulates the blood circulation